In this section you will find a selection of our reference literature for reconstructions of the objects found from Hjortspring Moor.
In the case of reconstruction of individual parts, such as shields, the sources are listed in that article.
The section on clothing is included here. However, this does not mean that any clothing has been found in the bog!

The section is divided into: find, tools, clothing and generally interesting from Prehistoric Times.

Primary sources

The Find

Gustav Rosenberg:



(The Hjortspring-Find)
Nordiske Fortidsminder, III bind. 1. hefte, 1937.
Det Kgl. Nordiske Oldskriftselskab, 1937, København.


  • History of the find
  • Bog
    • The landscape and the farm
    • The geological-botanical study of Hjortspring Bog, by Professor Dr. Knud Jessen
  • Objects found
    • Animal bones
    • Stone
    • Antiquities, swords, spears, ...
  • The Hjortspring-Boat
    • Characteristics of the boat, by Ing. Fr. Johannessen
  • The date and interpretation of the find
    • Timing and cultural context
    • Characteristics of the find


  • The Hjortspring-Boat during excavation. Overview pictures
  • Survey of the boat at Fr. Johannessen
    • Detail drawing
    • Line drawing
  • Main plan of the excavation with longitudinal section

The author

G. Rosenberg.

G. Rosenberg.

Gustav Adolf Theodor Rosenberg (08.06.1872-04.12.1940)

G. Rosenberg was trained as a carver and sculptor. He later trained as a conservator.

G. Rosenberg was employed as a conservator at the National Museum from 1895 - 1940.

He preserved both inorganic and organic materials. He was responsible for several major conservation projects, including the Hjortspringfind for which he was also the excavation leader. He could therefore already at the excavation take into account all the subsequent preservation.

In 1917 he published a method of preserving iron and bronze and he worked intensively with galvanic and electrolytic methods of preserving metal. Rosenberg also developed and improved methods for preserving textiles.

Rosenberg carefully described his methods in his notebooks to the great delight of his successors.

He was also the leader of the excavation of the Ladby ship, 1935 - 1937.

Flemming Kaul:

Da våbnene tav.

Da våbnene tav.

Da våbnene tav
Hjortspringfundet og dets baggrund.
(When the weapons were silent
The Hjortspring-Find and its background.)

Nyt Nordisk Forlag Arnold Busck
København 1988.
ISBN 87-17-06023-0

This book describes the find and its relations to the Pre-Roman Iron Age and to the Celtic people of Central Europe.


  • Introduction
  • The find
  • Other weapons and votive offerings from around Hjortspring Found
  • Weapons and armaments
  • Postscript

The author

Flemming Kaul.

Flemming Kaul.
The picture is from DR's TV series: History of Denmark , The time of the metals, 2017.

Museum inspector, senior researcher
The antiquity of Denmark and the Mediterranean countries
The National Museum, Dr.phil. 2006-11-10:
Archaeologist from the National Museum defends doctoral dissertation which uncovers approx. 3,000 year old myths and notions.

The myth of the sun's journey across the sky was the background for Bronze Age sculptors. The horse, the serpent and the ship let the sun travel through the day from night to day. It provided inspiration for the pictorial world that is now interpreted in Flemming Kaul's work "The Religion of the Bronze Age", which is accepted in defense of the philosophical doctorate.

Studies of the Nordic Bronze Age iconography
Nordic Antiquities, series B, vol. 22.

Flemming Rieck og Ole Crumlin-Pedersen:

Både fra Danmarks Oldtid.

Både fra Danmarks Oldtid.

Både fra Danmarks Oldtid
(Boats from Denmark's Antiquity)
Roskilde 1988.
ISBN 87-85180-12-2

A description of found boats from the oldest times until the year 800 with references to surrounding countries.

The authors

Flemming Rieck.

Flemming Rieck.

Flemming Rieck

Museum director for Køge Museum, 2008 - 2014.
Prehistoric archeology.
Marine archeology.
Led the excavations in Nydam Mose 1989 - 1999.

Ole Crumlin-Pedersen.

Ole Crumlin-Pedersen.
Speaking at the launch of Tilia Alsie on 5 June 1999.

Ole Crumlin-Pedersen (1935 - 2011)

Excavated in the period 1957-1962 the Viking ships at Skuldelev in Roskilde Fjord together with his colleague Olaf Olsen.

Was founder of the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde and head of the National Museum's Marine Research Center (NMF) in Roskilde.

He is also known as "the Grand Old Man" in Danish marine research.

Crumlin-Pedersen is widely recognized for his research as well as his role in presenting marine archeology to the public.

Has published a number of books and writings.

Has been the editor of the book series SHIPS AND BOATS OF THE NORTH .

Ole Crumlin-Pedersen became an honorary doctor at the University of Copenhagen in 2001.

Klavs Randsborg (1944 - 2016):


warfare and sacrifice in early Europe

Was a Danish archaeologist and professor at the University of Copenhagen.
His research focused on the Bronze Age and the Viking Age, and he wrote several books on the subject.


Conrad Engelhardt:

Sønderjyske og fynske mosefund, Bind III
Kragehul Viemosefundene
Published by ZAC 1970

Poul Riis Svendsen:

Tool technology - models
Notabene 1987

Gerhard Jacobi:

Werkzeug und Gerat aus dem Oppidum von Manching
(Tools and equipment from the Manching oppidum)
Franz Steiner Verlag GMBH
Wiesbaden 1974

Robert Thomsen:

Et meget mærkeligt metal
(A very strange metal)
Varde Staalværk 1975
Notabene 1987
ISBN 97 7499 284-9

Svend Nielsen:

Søtoftegaard, et depotfund fra Nordsjælland med romerske importsager
(Søtoftegaard, a depot find from North Zealand with Roman import matters)
Aarbøger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og historie 1984
Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftselskab

Poul Vouga:

La Tene
Monografie de la station publiee au nom de la commission des fouilles de la Tene
Kar W. Hiersemann
Leipzig 1923

Jørgen Lund:

I en kælder ...
(In a basement ...)
Skalk nr. 1 1978

Excavation of a cellar from the Celtic Iron Age in Overbygård, north of the Limfjord. The basement was burned while it was filled with supplies and other well-preserved items, including two period-old single-edged swords and an ax with a shaft dolly (page 9).

Steen Hvass:

Hodde settlement ...

Our exhibition on clothing

There are many articles and books about the Iron Age.
Since the subject of the exhibition is the Iron Age costume, we have chosen to refer to:

Elisabeth Munksgård:

(Ancient costumes)
Nationalmuseet, København. 1974

Margrethe Hald:

Olddanske tekstiler
(Old Danish textiles)
Det Kgl. Nordiske Oldskriftselskab
Nordisk Forlag 1950

Klaus Ebbesen:

Døden i mosen
(Death in the bog)
Carlsens forlag. København, 1986

Linda Boye:

Tøj og mode i oldtiden
(Clothing and fashion in ancient times)
P. Haase og Søns Forlag, København, 1986


Håndarbejds Leksikon
(Handicraft Lexicon)
Bonniers Specialmagasiner A/S, København 1996

Related publications

Jørgen Jensen (1936 - 2008)

Dr.phil. Jørgen Jensen
Foto: Jan Jørgensen Berlinske Tidende

Jørgen Jensen (1936 - 2008) was a diligent writer and his four major volumes on Denmark's Antiquity were praised in high tones by all reviewers. The book spawned a number of literary awards for its high academic content - and its clear and varied language.

Dr. Phil. 1999, with the dissertation: The end of the Bronze Age - a northern European perspective. Museum Inspector at the National Museum, Denmark's Antiquity until retirement in 2003. Amanuensis at the University of Copenhagen 1965-72. in prehistoric archeology 1963 (received the University of Copenhagen's gold medal in 1962).

Hjortspringbåden - gemt, men ikke glemt
(The Hjortspring-Boat - hidden but not forgotten)

Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark, København, 1986

Danmarks Oldtid
(Denmark's Antiquity)

Nordisk Forlag A/S, København
ISBN 87-00-30196-4 for den komplette samling (4 bind)

Stenalder, Bind 1
(Stone Age, Volume 1)

13.000 - 2.000 BC
ISBN 87-00-49038-5

Bronzealder, Bind 2
(Bronze Age, Volume 2)

2.000 - 500 BC
ISBN 87-002-00331-7

Ældre Jernalder, Bind 3
(Older Iron Age, Volume 3)

500 BC - 400 AD

Yngre Jernalder og Vikingetid, Bind 4
(Late Iron Age and Viking Age, Volume 4)

400 AD - 1050 AD
ISBN 87-02-0333-3

Ældre Jernalder, Bind 3
(Older Iron Age, Volume 3)

Have from page 67 to page 85 a full description both of the Hjortspring-find and testing of Tilia Alsie.

All four volumes can definitely be recommended, both for the high academic level and for the good language.
There is a well-developed notebook, subject register, place and name register, literature and picture register.

Harry Kahl, et al:

Roar Linde 71
Hjortspringbåden som kulturaktivitet
(The Hjortspring-Boat as a cultural activity)
Roskilde, 1971

A description of an earlier attempt to build the Hjortspring-Boat, from June 26 1971 to July 18 the same year!

The boat has been out sailing!

P.V. Glob:

Jernalderens mennesker bevaret i 2000 år
(The people of Bogs,
Iron Age people preserved for 2000 years)

Gyldendal, København, 1965
ISBN 87-01-56201-0

A description of Iron Age people found in the bog in Denmark and other countries. It is worth mentioning that the age of the Grauballemanden has been re-determined, by a non-destructive method with the tandem accelerator at Aarhus University in 1996, to the same time period as the Hjortspring-Boat - year 350 BC.

Anni Brøgger

Egtvedpigens Dans
(The Egtved Girl's Dance)
Forlaget Mammut, 2003
ISBN 87-989416-0-7

Flemming Kaul, Inspector at the National Museum writes:
Egtved Girl's Dance is at the exciting crossroads between science and art - between experimental archeology and dissemination, and it provides new perspectives for disseminating and expanding our knowledge of the Nordic Bronze Age-rich culture.

Anni Brøgger has danced on Tilia Alsie at the celebration of Grauballemand's "rebirth" in May 2000 in Silkeborg.

A DVD with the film "Egtvedpigens Dans" is included, duration 20 min.

Valdemar Dreyer:

H.C.Lorenzens Forlag, Nordborg, 1987
ISBN 87-88558-09-6

A collection of stories with Hjortspringgård, on whose lands the Hjortspring boat is found, as the center.
People have lived on the site as long as there has been agriculture in Denmark, about 5,900 years.

The stories cover a 900 year period from 1086 to 1987.

Valdemar Dreyer:

Nørreskoven på Als
(The North Forrest on Als)
Historisk Samfund for Als og Sundeved, 1992
ISBN 87153-09-2

Description of the North Forest on Als, especially the many finds from the past:
round and long barrows, bowl-stones, fortifications, ...
Hjortspringgård is next door to the forest.

Lars Møller Andersen:

Rapport fra forsøgsprojekt HAF 27/98
(Report from pilot project HAF 27/98)

Experiments with reconstruction and testing of painted shields from weapon sacrifice finds.

Ole Nielsen:

Skydeforsøg med jernalderens buer
(Iron Age Archery Attempts)

Eksperimentel Arkæologi
Studier i teknologi og kultur
Nr. 1 1991

Sejrens triumf.

Sejrens triumf.

Catalog for the exhibition: Triumph of victory The Nordic countries in the shadow of the Roman Empire and The Nydam boat - a warship from the Iron Age 2003- 2004.


Tacitus' Germania.

Tacitus' Germania.


Ideas of the Germans.
Commented and translated by
Allan A. Lund
1. oplag, 2016
Udgivet af forlaget Wormianum, Højbjerg Tidsskriftet Skalks forlag,
ISBN 978-87-89531-51-9


Tacitus' "Germania", originally written in the year 98, is a small book which Ever since the beginning of the 1500s has been read with alternating attention and different benefits depending on who studied it. The Italian humanists had their point of view on the writing and the learned Germans a slightly different one, which in retrospect seems nationalistic.

The book has 152 pages, of which Tacitus' book is 25 pages! The rest are comments and notes.

  • The content is pieced together by Ib Stolberg-Rohr, who can be contacted here if there are errors in the text.

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